The United Kingdom Pharmacy is a British multinational pharmaceutical, biologics, vaccines and consumer healthcare company headquartered in London, United Kingdom

TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy is a British multinational pharmaceutical, biologics, vaccines and consumer healthcare company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's fourth-largest pharmaceutical company measured by 2009 prescription drug sales (after Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi).[3] It was established in 2000 by the merger of TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Wellcome plc (formed from the acquisition of Wellcome plc by TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  plc) and TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy (formed from the merger of Beecham plc and TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Beckman Corporation, which was formed by combining the TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Kline French and Beckman companies).
GSK has a portfolio of products for major disease areas including asthma, cancer, virus control, infections, mental health, diabetes and digestive conditions. It also has a large consumer healthcare division that produces and markets oral healthcare and nutritional products, drinks and over-the-counter medicines, including Sensodyne, Boost, Horlicks, Lucozade, Ribena and Gaviscon.[4]
In July 2012, GSK pleaded guilty to criminal charges and agreed to a $3 billion settlement of the largest health-care fraud case in the U.S. and the largest payment by a drug company in the US.The settlement was related to the company's illegal promotion of prescription drugs, its failure to report safety data, bribing doctors, and promoting medicines for uses for which they were not licensed.[5][6] [7]
GSK has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. As of 6 July 2012, it had a market capitalisation of £74.8 billion, the fifth-largest of any company listed on the London Stock Exchange.[8] It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange.

Contents

History

GSK was formed in 2000 by the merger of TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Wellcome plc (formed from the acquisition of Wellcome plc by TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  plc), and TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy (formed from the merger of Beecham plc and TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Beckman Corporation).

TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Wellcome

The historic TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  factory in Bunnythorpe, New Zealand
In 1880, Burroughs Wellcome & Company was founded in London by the American pharmacists Henry Wellcome and Silas Burroughs.[9] The Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories opened in 1902.[9] In 1959, the Wellcome Company bought Cooper, McDougall & Robertson Inc. to become more active in animal health.[9] The Wellcome Company production centre was moved from New York to North Carolina in 1970, and the following year another research centre was built. TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  was founded in Bunnythorpe, New Zealand, in 1904.[9] Originally TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  was a baby food manufacturer processing milk into a baby food of the same name: the product was sold under the slogan "TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  builds bonny babies" from 1908. Still visible on the main street of Bunnythorpe is a dairy factory (factory for drying and processing cows' milk into powder) with the original TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  logo clearly visible, it is now a car repair shop.
TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  became TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Laboratories, and opened new units in London in 1935.[9] TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Laboratories bought two companies, Joseph Nathan and Allen & Hanburys, in 1947 and 1958 respectively.[9] After the company bought Meyer Laboratories in 1978,[9] it started to play an important role in the US market. In 1983 the American arm TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Inc. moved to Research Triangle Park (US headquarters/research) and Zebulon (US manufacturing) in North Carolina. Burroughs Wellcome and TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  merged in 1995 to form TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy Wellcome.[9] In the same year, TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy Wellcome opened its Medicine Research Centre in Stevenage.[9] Three years later TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy Wellcome bought Polfa Poznan Company in Poland.[9]

TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  

Beecham's Clock Tower, constructed in 1877 as part of the Beecham factory in St Helens
In 1843, Thomas Beecham launched his Beecham's Pills laxative in England giving birth to the Beecham Group.[9] Beecham opened its first factory in St Helens, Lancashire, England for rapid production of medicines in 1859. The original factory was closed in 1994 and passed to the local college for re-development. By the 1960s, Beecham was extensively involved in pharmaceuticals.
In 1830, John K. TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  opened its first pharmacy in Philadelphia.[9] In 1865, Mahlon Kline joined the business which 10 years later became TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy , Kline & Co.[9] Subsequently, in 1891, it merged with French, Richard and Company.[9] It changed its name to TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Kline & French Laboratories as it focused more on research in 1929. Years later, TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Kline & French Laboratories opened a new laboratory in Philadelphia; it then bought Norden Laboratories, a business doing research into animal health.
TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Kline & French Laboratories bought Recherche et Industrie Thérapeutiques (Belgium) in 1963 in order to focus on vaccines.[9] The company started to expand globally, buying seven laboratories in Canada and the US in 1969. In 1982, it bought Allergan, a manufacturer of eye and skincare products.[9] The company merged with Beckman Inc. later that year and changed its name to TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Beckman.[9]
In 1988, TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Beckman bought its biggest competitor, International Clinical Laboratories,[9] and in 1989 merged with Beecham to form TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  plc.[9] The headquarters of the company was moved to England. To expand research & development in the US, TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  bought a new research center in 1995. Another new research centre at New Frontiers Science Park in Harlow was opened in 1997.[9]

2000 to 2011

GSK House, the current world headquarters of TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  in Brentford, London
TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Wellcome and TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  announced their intention to merge on 17 January 2000.[10][11] Following receipt of necessary regulatory approvals, the merger was completed in December 2000, forming TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy .[12]
In 2001, GSK completed the acquisition of New Jersey-based Block Drug for US$1.24 billion.[13] In July 2002 GSK House, located in Brentford, London, was officially opened as GSK's new world headquarters by then-Prime Minister Tony Blair.[14] The building was built at a cost of £300 million and is home to around 3,000 staff.[14] In October 2006 GSK acquired the US-based consumer healthcare company CNS Inc., whose products included Breathe Right nasal strips and FiberChoice dietary fibre supplements, for US$566 million in cash.[15] GSK opened its first R&D centre in China in May 2007, located in Shanghai and initially focused on neurodegenerative diseases.[16][17]
Since 2008, GSK has been running clinical trials of a new malaria vaccine. The vaccine, which is known as RTS,S, has been in development for more than 25 years, at first for the American military and then with major support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The clinical trial is scheduled to continue through 2014 and will include tests on more than 15,000 children, starting at infancy.[18]
In February 2009, GSK head Andrew Witty announced that the company would cut drug prices by 25% in 50 of the poorest nations, release intellectual property rights for substances and processes relevant to neglected disease into a patent pool to encourage new drug development, and invest 20% of profits from the least developed countries in medical infrastructure for those countries.[19] The decision has received mixed reactions from medical charities.[20][21] Médecins Sans Frontières welcomed the decision, encouraging other companies to follow suit, but criticised GSK for failing to include HIV patents in their patent pool, and for not including middle-income countries in the initiative.[22]
In April 2009 GSK agreed to acquire the US-based dermatological pharmaceuticals company Stiefel Laboratories for US$3.6 billion (£2.5 billion).[23][24]
On 16 November 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that a vaccine for 2009 H1N1 influenza protection (manufactured by GSK's ID Biomedical Corp. subsidiary) would join the four vaccines approved on 15 September.[25] In June 2010, the company acquired Laboratorios Phoenix, an Argentine pharmaceutical company focused on the development, marketing and sale of branded generic products, for a cash consideration of approximately $253m.[26]
In November 2009, TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  formed a joint venture with Pfizer to create ViiV Healthcare. Viiv Healthcare received all of Pfizer and TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy 's HIV assets.[27] ViiV Healthcare is 85% owned by TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  and 15% owned by Pfizer. In December 2010, GSK announced its acquisition of the UK-based sports nutrition company Maxinutrition for £162 million (US$256 million).[28]

2011 to present

In February 2011, GSK announced plans to sell some "non-core" brands. In December 2011, the company agreed to a $660 million deal with Prestige Brands Holdings, which will take over 17 brands with sales of $210 million, including BC Powder, Beano, Ecotrin, Fiber Choice, Goody's Powder, Sominex, and Tagamet.[29] In March 2012 GSK announced plans to invest around £500 million in manufacturing facilities in Ulverston, northern England, designating it as the site for a previously announced biotech plant.[30]
GSK made a US$2.6 billion (£1.6 billion) offer for the United States-based biopharmaceutical company Human Genome Sciences in April 2012.[31][32]

Operations

The TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Biologicals facility in Dresden, Germany
GSK employs 97,000 people worldwide[33] of whom about 12,500 work in research and development. Its global headquarters are GSK House in Brentford, United Kingdom, with its United States headquarters based in Research Triangle Park in North Carolina[34] and its consumer products division based in the Pittsburgh suburb of Moon Township, Pennsylvania. The research and development division has major facilities in South East England, Philadelphia and Research Triangle Park in North Carolina. GSK has a presence in 99 cities across 39 countries.
GSK's single largest market is in the United States, which generates approximately 45% of its revenues, although the company sells its products in around 70 countries.
Other major GSK facilities include:

Products

GSK produces and sells a wide range of prescription-only and over-the-counter medications, as well as consumer products such as drinks and toothpaste. Its top-selling prescription drugs include the anti-depressant Paxil, which had attracted $11.6 billion in sales by 2012, the diabetes drug Avandia at $10.4 billion, the anti-depressant Wellbutrin at $5.9 billion, the asthma drugs Advair, Flovent and Ventolin, and the H2-antagonist Zantac.[35]
Its over-the-counter health care products include Abreva to treat cold sores; the oral hygiene products Aquafresh, Biotene, Maclean's and Sensodyne; Night Nurse; Breathe Right nasal strips; and Nicorette, a nicotine replacement. It also sells a number of drinks, including Horlicks, a malted milk drink, Lucozade, an energy drink, and Ribena, a fruit drink.[36]
GSK's current products include:

Corporate affairs

Stockmarket listings

GSK's stock is listed on the London stock exchange and ADRs are listed on the NYSE.

Senior management

Andrew Witty, who has been the chief executive officer of TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  since May 2008.
As of December 2012, the current members of GSK's board of directors are:[37]
  • Chris Gent (non-executive chairman)
  • Andrew Witty (chief executive officer, executive director)
  • Roy M. Anderson (non-executive director)
  • Stephanie Burns (non-executive director)
  • Stacey Cartwright (non-executive director)
  • Crispin Davis (non-executive director)
  • Simon Dingemans (chief financial officer)
  • Lynn Elsenhans (independent non-executive director)
  • Judy Lewent (independent non-executive director)
  • Deryck Maughan (independent non-executive director)
  • Daniel Podolsky (independent non-executive director)
  • Moncef Slaoui (chairman, R&D)
  • Tom de Swaan (independent non-executive director)
  • Jing Ulrich (non-executive director)
  • Robert Wilson (Senior independent non-executive director)

Corporate social responsibility

GSK has been active, with the World Health Organization, in the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF). Around 120 million people globally are believed to be infected with lymphatic filariasis.[38]
The company received a perfect score of 100 percent from the Human Rights Campaign Foundation's 2008 Corporate Equality Index, an annual report card of corporate America's treatment of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) employees, customers and investors.[39]

Controversies

Avandia

On 14 June 2007, an article was published by Steve Nissen, Chair of the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine at the Cleveland Clinic in the New England Journal of Medicine. This meta-analysis showed an increased odds ratio of myocardial infarction in patients taking rosiglitazone marketed as Avandia. More recently, the New York Times published an article detailing Nissen's conversation with pharmaceutical executives. These conversations were recorded unbeknownst to the GSK executives but are legal in the State of Ohio as long as one participating party is aware. Subsequently, a Congressional investigation was initiated to determine what information was known at the time of the approval of rosiglitazone as well as post approval and whether or not GSK wilfully suppressed such information. In November 2007, a United States congressional committee released a report[40] describing intimidation of Dr John Buse (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)[41][42] by TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  over his concerns about the cardiovascular risks associated with the company's anti-diabetes drug rosiglitazone (Avandia).[43] In February 2010, TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  tried to suppress publishing of a critical article[44] concerning rosiglitazone.[45] In July, a US Finance Committee Letter asserted GSK had "to publish studies in a timely manner that found problems with Avandia".[46] Based on data that suggested an elevated risk of heart attacks, the FDA made a decision to restrict access to rosiglitazone medicines on September 23, 2010.[47]

Paroxetine

Paroxetine (Seroxat, Paxil) is an SSRI anti-depressant released in 1992 by TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  (GSK). For 10 years, GSK marketing of the drug stated that it was "not habit forming," which numerous experts and at least one court found to be incorrect.[48][49][50] Since the FDA approved paroxetine in 1992, approximately 5,000 U.S. citizens have sued GSK. Most of them believe they were not sufficiently warned of the drug's side effects, particularly the withdrawal syndrome, because GSK had specifically advertised the drug as non-habit forming. Since 2001 in the UK, lawsuits have been filed representing people who have been prescribed Seroxat. They allege that the drug has serious side effects, which TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  downplayed in patient information.[51][52] In 2001, the BBC reported the World Health Organization had ranked paroxetine as the most difficult antidepressant to withdraw from. In 2002, the U.S. FDA published a new product warning for the drug, and the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations said GSK had misled the public about paroxetine and breached two of the Federation's codes of practice.[53]
In early 2004, GSK agreed to settle charges of consumer fraud for $2.5 million.[54] The legal discovery process also uncovered evidence of deliberate, systematic suppression of unfavorable Paxil research results. A 1993–1996 GSK study showed that Paxil was no more effective than placebo in treating depression in children and another study showed that placebo was actually more effective than the antidepressant. [55] however one of GSK's internal documents stated, "It would be commercially unacceptable to include a statement that efficacy [in children] had not been demonstrated, as this would undermine the profile of paroxetine".[56]
In June 2004, FDA published a violation letter to GSK in response to a "false or misleading" TV ad for Paxil CR; FDA stated, "This ad is concerning from a public health perspective because it broadens the use of Paxil CR [beyond the conditions it was approved for] while also minimizing the serious risks associated with the drug."[57] GSK claimed the ad had been previously reviewed by FDA, but said the ad would not run again.[58]
In March 2008 the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency concluded that GSK should have warned of the possible ill effects of taking Seroxat sooner.[59] As of 2008, TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy 's prescribing information acknowledges that "serious discontinuation symptoms" may occur.[60] The court documents released as a result of one of the lawsuits in October 2008 indicated that GSK "and/or researchers may have suppressed or obscured suicide risk data during clinical trials" of paroxetine.[61] In 2012 the U.S. Justice Department announced that GSK had agreed to plead guilty and pay a $3 billion fine, in part for illegally promoting the use of Paxil for children even though the FDA never approved it for anyone under age 18.[62][63]

SB Pharmco Puerto Rico Inc. closure

In October 2010 the U.S. Department of Justice announced that GSK would pay $150 million in criminal charges, at that time the largest such payment ever by a manufacturer of adulterated drugs, and $600 million in civil penalties. GSK agreed to pay the settlement in response to criminal and civil complaints against the company stemming from production of improperly made and adulterated drugs at their subsidiary SB Pharmco Puerto Rico Inc. in Puerto Rico, which at the time was GLKs premier manufacturing facility, producing $5.5 billion of product each year. According to the government report, for years GSK had knowingly sold contaminated baby ointment and an ineffective antidepressant, Paxil CR.
According to the report the case began in 2002 when GSK sent a team of quality experts to fix problems cited by an F.D.A. warning letter a month earlier. The quality control at the plant was found to be "a mess: the water system was contaminated; the air system allowed for cross-contamination between products; the warehouse was so overcrowded that rented vans were used for storage; the plant could not ensure the sterility of intravenous drugs for cancer; and pills of differing strengths were sometimes mixed in the same bottles." The lead inspector repeatedly complained to senior managers and recommended recalls of defective products, but they were not authorized. In 2003 she was terminated as a “redundancy.” She eventually notified the FDA and sued. In 2005 federal marshals seized $2 billion worth of products, the largest such seizure in history. Unable to fix the plant, GSK closed it in 2009.[64][65]

Health-care fraud settlement

On 2 July 2012, in the United States, GSK pleaded guilty to criminal charges and agreed to a $3 billion settlement related to the company's illegal promotion of prescription drugs, its failure to report safety data, bribing doctors, and promoting medicines for uses for which they were not licensed. The government investigation of GSK was launched largely on the basis of information provided by four whistleblowers who filed two qui tam (whistleblower) lawsuits against the company under the False Claims Act. GSK settled the whistleblowers’ lawsuits for a total of $1.017 billion out of the $3 billion settlement, the largest civil False Claims Act settlement to date.[66]
The settlement is the largest health-care fraud case in U.S. history and the largest payment by a drug company.[6][67] The drugs involved were Paxil, Wellbutrin, Advair, Lamictal, and Zofran for off-label, non-covered uses. Those and the drugs Imitrex, Lotronex, Flovent, and Valtrex were involved in a kickback scheme in which GSK had attempted to influence doctors by paying for "every imaginable form of high-priced entertainment, from Hawaiian vacations [and] paying doctors millions of dollars to go on speaking tours, to tickets to Madonna concerts". They also claimed that GSK had aimed at promoting the use of the drug Paxil in children by helping to publish a medical journal article that misreported data from a clinical trial.[63][68][69]

Other

  • In 2003, GSK signed a corporate integrity agreement and paid $88 million in a civil fine for overcharging Medicaid for the anti-depressant Paxil, and nasal-allergy spray Flonase. Also in 2003, it was reported that GSK owed the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) $7.8 billion in backdated taxes and interest, the highest in IRS history.[70]
  • In March 2006, California Attorney General Bill Lockyer announced that "TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  (GSK) will pay $14 million to resolve allegations that state-government programs paid inflated prices for the firm’s anti-depressant drug Paxil because GSK engaged in patent fraud, anti-trust violations and frivolous litigation to maintain a monopoly and block generic versions from entering the market."[71]
  • On 12 September 2006, GSK settled the largest tax dispute in IRS history, agreeing to pay $3.1 billion. At issue in the case were Zantac and the other TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  Group heritage products sold in 1989–2005. The case was about an area of taxation dealing with intracompany "transfer pricing"—determining the share of profit attributable to the US subsidiaries of GSK and subject to tax by the IRS. Taxes for large multi-divisional companies are paid to revenue authorities based on the profits reported in particular tax jurisdictions, so how profits were allocated among various legacy TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmacy  divisions based on the functions they performed was central to the dispute in this case.[72]
  • On 27 March 2007, GSK pleaded guilty in an Auckland District Court to 15 charges relating to misleading conduct brought under the Fair Trading Act by New Zealand's Commerce Commission. The charges related to the popular blackcurrant fruit drink Ribena, which the company had led consumers to believe contained high levels of vitamin C. As part of a school science project, Anna Devathasan and Jenny Suo, 14-year-old schoolgirls from Pakuranga College in Auckland, discovered that ready-to-drink juice sold in 100ml containers contained very little vitamin C. Approaches by the two teens to the company did not resolve the issue, and after the matter was publicised on national consumer affairs television show Fair Go it came to the attention of the Commerce Commission. The commission's testing found that ready-to-drink Ribena contained no detectable vitamin C.
The company was fined $217,000 for the 15 charges. The number of charges was reduced from 88 and covered the period from March 2002 to March 2006. GSK maintains that it did not intend to mislead consumers and that the advertising claims were based on testing procedures that have since been changed. It was ordered to run an advertising campaign to provide the facts after it admitted misleading the public about the vitamin C component in its Ribena drink. Through its lawyer, Adam Ross, the company accepted Commerce Commission allegations that claims that ready-to-drink Ribena contained 7 mg of vitamin C per 100ml, or 44% of the recommended daily intake, were incorrect. The company also agreed television advertising claiming the blackcurrants in Ribena had four times the vitamin C of oranges, while literally true, were likely to mislead consumers about the relative levels of vitamin C in Ribena.[73]

TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical[2] is a British-Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biologics company headquartered in London, United Kingdom.


TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical[2] is a British-Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biologics company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's fifth-largest pharmaceutical company measured by 2009 prescription drug sales (after Pfizer, Novartis, Sanofi, and GlaxoSmithKline) and has operations in over 100 countries.[3] It has a portfolio of products for major disease areas including cancer, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, infection, neuroscience, respiratory and inflammation.[4] The company was founded in 1999 through the merger of the Sweden-based TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical AB and the UK-based Zeneca Group.[5][6]
TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It had a market capitalisation of approximately £39.5 billion as of 23 December 2011, the tenth-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange.[7] It has secondary listings on the New York Stock Exchange and the OMX exchange.

Contents

History

TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical AB was founded in 1913 in Södertälje, Sweden, by 400 doctors and apothecaries.[8] In 1993 the British chemicals company ICI demerged its pharmaceuticals businesses and its agrochemicals and specialties businesses, to form Zeneca Group plc,.[9] Finally, in 1999 TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical and Zeneca Group merged to form TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical.[9]
In 2005, the company announced that it had become a Diamond Member of the Pennsylvania Bio commerce organisation.[10] It also acquired KuDOS Pharmaceuticals, a UK biotech company, for £120m[11] and entered into an anti-cancer collaboration agreement with Astex.[12]
In 2006, following a collaborative relationship begun in 2004, TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical acquired Cambridge Antibody Technology for £702 million.[13]
In February 2007, TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical agreed to buy Arrow Therapeutics, a company focused on the discovery and development of anti-viral therapies, for $150 million.[14]
TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical's pipeline, and "patent cliff", was the subject of much speculation in April 2007 leading to pipeline-boosting collaboration and acquisition activities.[15] A few days later TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical acquired American company MedImmune for about $15.2 billion; TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical subsequently consolidated all of its biologics operations into a dedicated biologics division called MedImmune.[16]
In 2011, TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical acquired Guangdong BeiKang Pharmaceutical Company, a Chinese generics business.[17]
In February 2012, TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical and Amgen announced collaboration on treatments for inflammatory diseases.[18] Then in April 2012, TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical acquired Ardea Biosciences, another biotechnology company, for $1.26 billion.[19]
In June 2012, TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical and Bristol-Myers Squibb announced a two-stage deal for the joint acquisition of the biotechnology company Amylin Pharmaceuticals.[20][21] It was agreed that Bristol-Myers Squibb would acquire Amylin for $5.3 billion in cash and the assumption of $1.7 billion in debt, with TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical then paying $3.4 billion in cash to Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Amylin being folded into an existing diabetes joint-venture between TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical and Bristol-Myers Squibb.[21]
In March 2013, TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical said it will cut 2,300 jobs as part of a restructuring of its business.[22]

Operations

TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical develops, manufactures and sells pharmaceutical and biotechnology products to treat disorders in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and vascular, neurological and psychiatric, infection, respiratory, pathological inflammation and oncology areas.
TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical has its corporate headquarters in London, United Kingdom, and its research and development (R&D) headquarters are in Södertälje, Sweden. The company employs over 11,000 people at research facilities in the United Kingdom, United States, Sweden, France, Canada, India, China, Brazil and Japan.
The company's largest single research and development site is at Alderley Park (a large country estate on the east side of the A34 road north of the Monk's Heath crossroads) in Cheshire, England. Around 4,500 staff are based at the site.[23]
The company has a major research and development presence in Sweden, with approximately 4,000 staff employed at research facilities in Mölndal and Södertälje.[24]

Products

TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical specialises in prescription medicines to fight disease in several therapeutic areas. The following is a list of key products found on the TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical website.[25] Generic- drug names are given in parentheses following the brand name.
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
-Respiratory and Inflammation

Under development

Senior management

The senior executive team is composed of David Brennan, Simon Lowth, John Patterson, Tony Zook, David Mott, Bruno Angelici, Lynn Tetrault and David Smith. As of 2008, Brennan is paid $1,574,144 for his role as chief executive officer.[26]
On 26 April 2012, it was announced that David Brennan was to retire early in the June of that year[27]
It was also announced that Leif Johansson will succeed Louis Schweitzer as Non-Executive Chairman on 1 June 2012 – three months earlier than previously announced – and will become Chairman of the Nomination and Governance Committee after (the 2012) Annual General Meeting."[27]
Non-executive directors include Graham Chipchase, Chief Executive of Rexam plc.

Controversies

Seroquel: adverse effects and trial procedures

TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical has stated that the atypical-antipsychotic drug, Seroquel, is the subject of four class-action lawsuits in Canada. Also, in the United States, there were multiple product-liability cases alleging personal injury, namely, that Seroquel causes people to develop diabetes. The company has indicated its intention to seek further regulatory approval for Seroquel to treat additional psychiatric conditions such as depression and general anxiety disorder.[28]
Note as well that scientific findings regarding a new sustained-release form of the drug were announced at a conference in Madrid, Spain, in March 2007. At the time the data regarding the new drug were discussed, the drug had not been approved for sale by any health regulatory body in any country.[29]
During 2005 and 2006 clinical trials were carried out to examine the possibilities of further development of Seroquel. Test persons were recruited from research centres in Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Bulgaria, and India. As part of the trials half of the test persons were given a placebo and stopped their medication. As a result 36 test persons relapsed into illness. One test person committed suicide, possibly as a result of quitting his medication. TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical denied that the suicide was related to the testing procedures. Ethical concerns were raised over the issue of carrying out trials in less-developed countries because of lower requirements for getting trials approved and overall lower trial costs.
In 2008, 45% of the test persons in TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical medical trials came from Asia; Eastern- and Central Europe; and South America. The same year 13.5% of the total sales were made in these regions. In contrast 86% of total sales were made in Japan, North America, and Western Europe.[30]
In April 2010 TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical settled a qui tam lawsuit brought by Stefan P. Kruszewski for $520 million to settle allegations that the company defrauded Medicare, Medcaid, and other government-funded health care programs in connection with its marketing and promotional practices for the blockbuster atypical antipsychotic, Seroquel.[31]
In March 2011, TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical settled a lawsuit in the United States totalling $68.5 million dollars to be divided up to 38 states.[32] Claims were made against TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical that it promoted Seroquel's use in children and adolescents long before establishing that it was safe or effective for any use in this population. Furthermore, it was found that patients experienced very serious side effects, including weight gain, diabetes and heart problems. TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical has been caught in a number of lawsuits stemming from deceptive and unfair promotion of Seroquel, and this is not the first series of settlements.[33]

MedImmune takeover

After this long run of failed late-stage clinical trials, on 19 June 2007 TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical completed the acquisition of vaccine maker MedImmune, paying $15.2 billion primarily for its drug-development pipeline. Analysts have criticised this take-over, claiming that TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical paid too much.[34] TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical consolidated its biologics portfolio in MedImmune and Cambridge Antibody Technology (acquired in 2007).[35] This biologics portfolio was then rebranded to create a dedicated, global biologics organisation known as 'MedImmune'. Amid allegations of broken promises over this consolidation,[35] TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical presented the new MedImmune to investors on 7 December 2007.[16]

Nexium

The company's most commercially-successful medication is esomeprazole. When it is manufactured the result is a mixture of two mirror-imaged molecules, R and S. Both are converted to the same active molecule in the body. Two years before the omeprazole patent expired TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical patented S-omeprazole in pure form, pointing that since some people metabolise R-omeprazole slowly, pure S-omeprazole treatment would give higher dose efficiency and less interindividual variation.[36] The company marketed Nexium, as it would a brand new drug. This practice is criticised because it maintains the profits of drug companies at the expense of patients and public healthcare systems.[37]
On 16 August 2007, Marcia Angell, former editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine and a lecturer in social medicine at the Harvard Medical School, alleged in Stern, a German-language weekly newsmagazine, that TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical's scientists had doctored their research on the drug's efficiency:
Instead of using presumably comparable doses [of each drug], the company's scientists used Nexium in higher dosages. They compared 20 and 40mg Nexium with 20mg Prilosec. With the cards having been marked in that way, Nexium looked like an improvement- which however was only small and shown in only two of the three studies.
Nexium is also alleged by the authors to be "the top of the list" of medications which are marketed by pharmaceutical companies directly to doctors, who receive gifts of money and/or goods when they prescribe the medication in question. As a reason for the company's behaviour, it is alleged that the German public healthcare system spends an additional $139.50 million at time of reporting--> per annum on Nexium as compared to using omeprazole, which however would be less profitable for the company as its patent protection has expired.[38]

Corporate sexual harassment

Confronted by allegations in a 13 May 1996, Business Week cover story, of widespread sexual harassment and other abuses, TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical USA Inc. suspended three top executives and launched an internal probe.[39]
TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical USA agreed to pay $10 million to settle a lawsuit brought by at least 79 women and one man against the company. The suit accused TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical's former president and other executives of pressuring female employees for sex and replacing older workers with younger, more attractive women.[40]

Bildman fraud

On 4 February 1998, TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical USA sued Lars Bildman, its former president and chief executive officer, seeking $15 million for defrauding the company.[41] The sum included $2.3 million in company funds he allegedly used to fix up three of his homes, plus money the company paid as the result of the EEOC investigation. TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical's lawsuit alleged Bildman sexually harassed and intimidated employees, used company funds for yachts and prostitutes, destroyed documents and records, and concocted "tales of conspiracy involving ex-KGB agents and competitors. This was in a last-ditch effort to distract attention from the real wrongdoer, Bildman himself." Bildman had already plead guilty in U.S. District Court for failing to report more than $1 million in income on his tax returns; in addition, several female co-workers filed personal sexual-harassment lawsuits.

Nobel Prize investigation 2008

In 2008 the Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to a German virologist, Harald zur Hausen, for his research on the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The Swedish police's anticorruption unit decided to investigate as TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical, which has a stake in two lucrative HPV vaccines and thus stood to gain financially from the prize, had agreed to sponsor Nobel Media and Nobel Web. Investigations were focused on whether TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical could have exerted undue influence on the award. According to Times Online, two senior figures in the process that chose zur Hausen also had strong links with TUK Phar - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical.[42]

 
Coppy right 1968 @ TUKPHAR - The United Kingdom Pharmaceutical Companies